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Adventist proponents of women’s ordination tend to rely on the works of feminist, liberal, and egalitarian scholars from other faiths. (Egalitarianism is the belief that the equality of men and women does not allow for any role-differentiation between them, or that, if it exists at all, role distinction is a consequence of the Fall, not a creation ordinance).

These egalitarian scholars reinterpret the Bible and history to justify the ordination of women. Although their biblical claims and creative interpretations have been compellingly challenged by Bible-believing scholars—within and without our church—these sound works are often not readily accessible to church members. Below are some of the notable works that uphold the biblical position on the role of men and women in the home and church.

A. Seventh-day Adventist Works

NOTE: In 1987, "a group of scholars and other interested people" began publishing a magazine called Adventists Affirm to address the liberalizing influences in the church (Click here). This magazine took a stand against the ordination of women as elders and pastors, maintaining that ordaining women to these leadership roles is contrary to Scripture and historic Adventist teaching and practice. Since its inception, the magazine has published some major works to challenge egalitarian re-interpretations of the Bible and Adventist history. Other Adventist scholars have also published materials that are supportive of the church’s biblical position. Below are some notable examples:

Hasel, Gerhard F. "Hermeneutical Issues Relating to the Ordination of Women: Methodological Reflections on Key Passages" (1994). A Presentation Presented to the General Conference Commission on Roles of Women in the Church (May 23, 1994). Dr. Hasel, a former Dean of the Seminary at Andrews University, was a world-class Seventh-day Adventist scholar. His insightful article takes a careful look at the relevant texts on women’s ordination and concludes that role-differentiation between male and female originated at creation, not the Fall. The 56-page document is available at the Center for Adventist Research, James White Library, Andrews University. Click here

Dyer, Mercedes. Prove All Things: A Response to WOMEN IN MINISTRY [Book]. Berrien Springs, MI: Adventists Affirm, 2000. Contributors to this 423-page book include Andrews University professors and alumni. They carefully examine the pro-ordination Seminary book Women in Ministry, pointing out major flaws in the books biblical and historical arguments. To read selected chapters from this book, Click here.

Bacchiocchi, Samuele. “Headship, Submission, and Equality in Scripture.” In Mercedes Dyer’s (ed.) Prove All Things: A Response to WOMEN IN MINISTRY. Berrien Springs, MI: Adventists Affirm, 2000. This penetrating article challenges a key pro-ordination argument that claims that male leadership is not a creation ordinance, but rather the consequence of the Fall. The article is available online (Click here).

_____________.Women in the Church: A Biblical Study on the Role of Women in the Church. Berrien Springs, MI: Biblical Perspectives, 1987. Four of the ten chapters are available online at: (Click here

Holmes, Raymond C. Tip of an Iceberg, The: Biblical Authority, Biblical Interpretation, and the Ordination of Women in Ministry. Berrien Springs, MI: Adventists Affirm and Pointer Publications, 1994. This incisive 196-page book deals with biblical authority/interpretation, and the ordination of women in ministry.

Hyde, Gordon M. “The Mohaven Council--Where It All Began.” Adventists Affirm, Vol. 3, No. 2 (Fall 1989). Hyde, a former Director of the Biblical Research Institute of the General Conference, offers an insightful background to the events that ultimately led to the 1990 request to ordain women.

B. Non-Seventh-day Adventist Works

NOTE: There are a number of non-Adventist scholars who have challenged the feminist, liberal, and egalitarian interpretations of the Bible to justify women’s ordination. The Journal for Biblical Manhood and Womanhood has published significant works on biblical manhood and womanhood. (See, Click here) Among the major works refuting the egalitarian interpretations of Scripture are the following:

Grudem, Wayne. Evangelical Feminism and Biblical Truth: An Analysis of More Than 100 Disputed Questions. Sisters, OR: Multnomah, 2004. To read this book online, Click here

_____________. Countering the Claims of Evangelical Feminism. Colorado Springs, Colorado: Multnomah, 2006. For more information on this work, Click here

_____________.Evangelical Feminism: A New Path to Liberalism? Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 2006. To read selected chapters, Click here

_____________ (ed.). Biblical Foundations for Manhood and Womanhood. The contributors to this book include: John Piper, Bruce A. Ware, Richard W. Hove, Daniel Doriani, Daniel R. Heimbach, and Peter Jones. To read this book online, Click here

Köstenberger Andreas J., Thomas R. Schreiner, and H. Scott Baldwin, Women in the Church : An Analysis and Application of 1 Timothy 2:9-15. 2nd ed. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2005. [A revised edition of the 1995 volume, Women in the Church]

Hove, Richard. Equality in Christ? Galatians 3:28 and the Gender Dispute. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1999. To read this work, Click here

Kassian, Mary A. The Feminist Gospel: The Movement to Unite Feminism with the Churh. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1992. To read this work, Click here

Piper, John and Wayne Gruden, eds. Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood: A Response to Evangelical Feminism. Wheaton, IL: Crossway Books, 1991. To read this work, Click here

____________. Fifty Crucial Questions. This is a booklet adapted from chapter two of Recovering Biblical Manhood and Womanhood by John Piper and Wayne Grudem. To read the Fifty Cruial Questions, Click here

Poythress, Vern S. and Wayne Grudem. The Gender Neutral Bible Controversy: Muting the Masculinity of God's Words. Nashville, Tennessee, Broadman and Holman Publishers, 2000. This work looks at how new Bible translation attempt silence the Bible's teaching on gender role-differentiation. To read this work, Click here

Clark, Stephen B. Man and Woman in Christ: An Examination of the Roles of Men and Women in Light of Scripture and the Social Sciences. Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Books, 1980. To read this work, Click here